Discussion on the Industrial Revolutionof the Twenty-First Century
Abstract:this paper, by analyzing the concept of theindustrial revolution, puts forward a view on the division of the phases of the Industrial Revolution, redefines the new industrial revolution, and considers that the three ideas, i.e. “Making the Energy Move from There to Here, Makingthe Heat EngineCool Down&Turning Discharged Waste into Resources” are the focus of innovation and development of the new industrial revolution, which can bring about great change and development in the field of energy, power and emission reduction, and thus promote a new Industrial Revolution.
Key words: Industrial Revolution, Technology Innovation, Technology Creation, Social Change
一、 工业革命的概念和特征The concept and characteristics of the industrial revolution
The industrial revolution is a great epoch-making revolution in human history. For more than a century, scholars have been debating the definition of the industrial revolution, and the research on it has become more and more deep. However,little consensus is achieved among researchers,even on the basic issues such as the essence of the industrial revolution.
Literally, the industrial revolution is consisted of two parts, one is “industry” ,the other is “revolution”. According to the Baidu Baike, the industryrefers to a processin which the raw material is collected and processed into products or a work that collects raw material and processes the material into products. As a product of the development of social division of labor, the industrial revolution experienced several development stages including handicraft, machineryandmodern industry. Revolution, a historical process to achieve social change,refers to the promotion ofthe fundamental changes in thingsandcausing things to leap from the old quality to a new one,
Therefore, This paper argues thatthe industrial revolution is a social and industrial transformation that causes a great change in the fields of industrial process, scale, and technology, and greatly impact industry and cause leaping progress and development.
Domestic and foreign scholars have divided the research on the definition of industrial revolution into social change, industrial organization, macroeconomic, technical, energy and consumption schools.This paper, based on the developmental processand results,and starting from the attribute of industry of secondary industry , will summarize some of the obvious characteristics of theindustrial revolution.
1. 社会影响规模 The scale of social impact
The industrial revolution will cause widespread changes in society, which affectthe development and change of industry and industry-related areas, not limited to a single or a few area(s)
2. 市场经济价值the value of the market economy
The occurrence of an industrial revolution should inevitably continue to lead to the substantial growth of the gross social product for a considerable period of time, the growth is even too big to be estimated;
3. 技术理论进步Progress in technology theory
工业领域发生重大的理论突破和进步，这些系统、全面的新理论、新认识的应用，引起工业过程发生前所未有的变化，全社会产生强大的变革发展的内在动力；Some major theoretical breakthroughs and progresses should appear in the industrial field, and the application of these systematic, comprehensive new theory and understanding shall cause unprecedented changes in industrial processesand produce inner dynamics for the reformative development of the society at large;
4. 生产力的发展Development of productive force
The real industrial revolution will inevitably bring huge and leaping development to human social productive forces, andpromote the great changes in the relations of production at the same time.
5. 历史因果关联Historical causal relationship
The new industrial revolution should not be a slow, progressive, cumulative development, but should be an explosive growth or breaking developmentemerged in the process of industrial development,almost without associationwith progressivity of the history.
A industrial revolution should have all the above characteristics. Both the first industrial revolution(birth and development of power machinery)andthe second industrial revolution(discovery and application of electricity) that have been experienced by mankind also have the above characteristics. However, the so-called “Third Industrial Revolution” or “Fourth Industrial Revolution”, which has been described as occurring or even nearing completion, does not meet the above characteristics.
The first industrial revolution, which has continued to now, caused a major leap from manual labor to power machine production.The machinery and equipment used today, especially power equipmentalmost were born at the beginning of the revolution , and continuously andgradually developed and improved in this 100 years.Even the steam locomotives that just quit the historical stageare still playing a role in a very small number of applications.The second industrial revolution is characterized by the application of “electricity”, a breakthrough in the new field completely different from the steam engineandinternal combustion engine.the electricity plays a magical role in the areas ranging from the light, telephone, cable, radio to computerandInternet, this is a process in which the application of the electricity is expanded with deepening of the understanding of the electricity. In this gradually development process, there is no single phase which can be called the new "industrial revolution". At best, it can only be a small revolution in a small field or sector. It should be said that the first industrial revolution and the second industrial revolution has continued to this dayandis still ongoing, and the industrial revolution that cancompete with the first or second one has not yet begun.
二、 新的工业革命的基础和条件the foundation and conditionof the new industrial revolution
Today, the productivity of human society has been highly developed, and the production relations have reached a high level, which is reflected by the economic prosperity and social stability.It can be said in layman's terms that almost all products that the society needs can be produced, but the whole society does not know what it should manufacture.Every industry is over capacity or products surplus.The whole consumer demand is weak, people's demand for industrial products seems to have been met without any further demand. The new market occasionally emerged is saturated or excessin a twinkling of an eye.
The new needs and new growth points can not be found, and the existing “cake” such as raw materials, semi-finished and finished products is limited.Because some countries that used to be developed found that they can not eat the cake and the cake is not enough, theyimpose shamelessly punitive tariffs, trade sanctions and fabricate lies in order to slow down the development of China andlead China to astray.And China starts to improve the “supply side”andmake great efforts to improve the qualityin accordance with the Westerncountry’s lies.Can this produce new demands?Is it necessary to cut off thehuman beings productivity when it developed to a certain stage?We are now significantly reducing production capacity of coalandsteel, the world recognized important strategic material, and make efforts to phase out low-level production capacity.However, if someday the production capacity of the high quality productsreach to a high level andthe high quality coal, cement and steel become surplus due to the productionstop offault coal, low-grade cement and low-quality steel , what shall we do? Canthese high quality products but exceeded demands be ensured to be sold out?
“It is the market that triggers the necessity for the industrial revolution!”Today, under the circumstance that the real economy has encountered a bottleneck and the energy crisis has been imminent, if a“bigger cake” can not be found, the fight forthe existing “cake” andits distribution by various classes and interest groups will increasingly intensify, so the human need to another real industrial revolution.
What is the industrial revolution? Where will the Industrial Revolution begin? What shall be relied on to achieve the industrial revolution? Some people say that theindustrial revolution will rely on the model, some people say rely on information, andsome people say by intelligent. According to the characteristics of the industrial revolution summarized in this paper, it can be concluded that what can be called a revolution must be a big movement, something that changes people's production and life in a big wayandoccupies the main position in economic scale. Energy or power, which has close relation with everyoneand is attached great importance by every countryand is one of thebasic industriesrelated to human survival and development, will be the starting point of the new or the thirdindustrial revolution.
三、 新工业革命的理念和方法The ideas and methods of the new industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution always begins with theoretical revolution.Only will the revolutionary development of the theory bringrevolutionary changes to the industry.The research on the fundamental law of natural science is nearing the end. In addition to studying graphene and gravitational wave, is there any othersignificant and innovative research content closely related to specific production and life for scientist to research? Is there any chance of big change?
Creation is the process to bring something into existence, while innovation is characterized in the application of better solutions. Mankind now already have a clear understanding of the Earth's resources. All resources that can be easily obtained have been fully developed;the study on and development of shale gas and flammable icefromthe perspective of creation and discovery have begun. In this circumstance, can we look back for what innovation may be made? Has any thing been ignored by us?
The concept innovation made by us, i.e. “Making the Energy Move from There to Here, Makingthe Heat EngineCool Down&Turning Discharged Waste into Resources”, will not only bring significant energy saving to various industriesandlowerthe working temperature sections of existing engines but also transform the heat in normal temperature into power andturn the carbon dioxide emissions into wealth, resourcesandfertilizer while creating a higher efficiency than the heat of combustion! The following explanations are given one by one.
1. 让能量动起来，能源应用观念创新Making the Energy Move, a concept innovation of energy utilization
To greatly improve the efficiency of energy utilization by moving and handling the energy
For hundreds of years, there has been an inertial thinking in mankind: whenever we need heat, we are used to using the heat converted from traditional energysuch as coal, gas, oil and electricity.Theknown energy conservation law has made many of us lose sight of the lever effect of heat transferof the so-called heat pump technology, which usesa small amount of energy to transportthe heat in other mediums so that the heat obtained from the mediums is sufficient to greatly reduce the consumptions of the high grade energy and fossil fuels, and significant energy saving and emissions reduction is achieved.
There are many kinds of heat pump technology, one of which is a compression heat pump system used by air-conditioner andrefrigerating systems.An air conditioner can efficiently carry the heat back and forth inside and outside of a room. For example, the air conditioner carries the heat from inside of a room to the outside in summer and carries heat outside into the room in winter. Its energy efficiency ratio is generally three times. In other words, it saves two third of energy in comparison to the method that directly consumes energy substances for heat.
Water Source Heat Pump(WSHP) and Ground Source Heat Pump(GSHP) that are being gradually popularized recent years work on the same principle as the air conditioner and refrigerator that came into our life one hundred year ago. Unfortunately, despite their high-energy efficiency ratiosand obvious energy saving results, the design temperatures for WSHP and GSHP applications are so low that they can mainly output hot water, and be used for air conditioning, refrigeration, heating, and bathing, without higher industrial value, or involving high-energy consumptionareas of the industry. Therefore, it is difficult for them to produce better social benefits of energy savingand emission reduction.
In fact, the heat pump technology has never been said it is not able to exceed 100℃.Will the temperature difference of twenty or thirty degrees Celsius become a bottleneck in physics? Can the heat pump only be used in the temperature range of dozens of degrees Celsius? Of course, the answer is no! One of our studies has shown that the existing heat pump system output can easily reach 100 ℃ or more. These heat pumps has theability to workwith high-efficiency for a long time period, and can be used in most of high-energy consumption areas of theindustryto achieve a large proportion of energy saving.We take the steam boiler as an example: The previous heat pump technology has a maximum thermal energy saving that only account for 3% to 8% of total heat, and has no practical value due to its narrow working range of below 70 ℃ and other factors such as the system complexity and increased cost. It is the introduction of the heat pump intohigh-energy consumption area，i.e.water-steam boiling，and its efficient operation that can set a foundation for heat pump to achieve an breakthrough in boiler area.
There are many types of heat pumps. The energy source to drive the heat pump includes electricity, heat energy and potential energy, etc.. To the extent of all the current proven techniques, as long as your demand is not too high, for example,higher than 200℃, the existing equipment, technology and process can be used to assemble a system with heat pump to meet your demand for heat and substantially save energy.If we, from now on, strive for 100 percent energy efficiency for our boilers and obtain a energy efficiency at least between 200 percent and 300 percent, we will save energy more than 50 percent. If the cooking utensils in each household kitchen save energy more than 60 percent, heat value will dramatically reduce, the kitchen will becomecool.
When the heat pump evaporation method is used to treat sewage or desalinate seawater, treating a ton of water only spend electricity of a dozen kilowatt-hour, and we can get pure water at the same time. If our washing machines, kitchen utensils, heating, water heaters are all changed, this will look like areform?
To improve Energy utilization efficiency by systematic and CascadeUtilization of the energy
For a long time, people are used to utilizing energy in a single and direct way. they burn oil and coal to meet their demand for heat, anduse electrically drivencompression heat pump or heat-driven absorption heat pump for refrigeration. For example,in the design of thermal power plants, the waste heat is dissipated in a large cooling tower without reuse.In the construction of data centers, the designers mainly consider how to access to cheap electricityandheat dissipationat the lowest cost, without considering how to use the heat generated by the huge electric energy.
In the generation and flow processes,energy can output mechanical power, and eventually turn into heat. In the process of generation, we throw away the waste heat that may output power. In heating, we ignore the chance to output high-grade mechanical or electrical energy, without first use of high-grade energy, whole process use, or high-efficiency use.
If we,rather thanbuilding more large or super-large thermal power plants, turn each boiler into a “small thermal power station” that first generates electricity then supply heating and steam, there will be no waste heat utilization problem.If we achieve high-grade use, and even use high-grade energy-driven “heat pump” system in energy utilization process so that the actual energy output of the subsequent heat and steam supply process is greater than the total calorific value of fuel, i.e. energy efficiency is greater than one, we will achieve substantial energy saving and the efficient use of energy!
As long as we shiftour thinking, adopt systematic and efficient energy utilization mode, fully use the heat pump technology in comprehensive energy utilization applications, transport the heat in air, sewage, soil, as well as the heat recoveredfrom other sources of heat to production and life equipment for recycling, achieve the heat energy dispatch between hot and cold working face within the enterprise, or even make energy flow in time and space to achieve cross-regional, cross-season, cross-industry utilization, the system's new energy consumption will beonly a fraction of the original energy consumption , the efficiency of energy use will be inevitably greatly improved, energy consumption and environment pollution will be reduced, the increasingly tense situation of the current energy supply will be changed.